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Inclusion, Exclusion, Illusion and Collusion

Helen Turnbull argues that overall, human beings are not as inclusive as they think they are. They suffer from the inclusion paradox. People have a deep need to feel included, and should understand what it feels like to experience exclusion. Yet, humans have an affinity bias and are often drawn to others that are like them. Typically, people are more empathetic and sympathetic to those in their ingroup and indifferent to the success and failures of people in their outgroup. However, with all their shortcomings, human beings have the desire to be better. 

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